Description：The Philippine Management Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal published annually by the Cesar E.A. Virata School of Business, University of the Philippines with international editorial advisory board and reviewers. It provides a forum for applied research on Philippine finance and management issues. The journal also encourages submission of studies featuring management problems and practices in the Asian region from other academics and practitioners. Accepted articles went through a double-blind refereeing process. Views and recommendations expressed in the articles are the sole responsibility of the respective authors.